Review Notes Sociology 101 SUNY Morrisville Final Exam

Major Concepts to Review for Final Exam:

Introduction - Chapter 1

- How is sociology defined?
- What is a social institution?
- Who invented the term sociology?
... When?
... Where?
... Why?
- What were the social conditions that were changing in Europe in the 1800s to prompt these sociologists to write about their societies?
- What is Structural-Functional Theory?
What is Social Conflict Theory?
- What is Symbolic-Interaction Theory?

Doing Social Science - Chapter 2

- How is the scientific method defined?
- What is a hypothesis? What is a theory?
- What are the four "ways of knowing" (and establishing our beliefs)
- What does the anagram NOTTUS describe?

- Chapter 3

- What is the definition of culture?
- What are the four components of culture:
... What are Symbols?
... What is Language?
... What are Values, Beliefs, and Norms?
... What are Artifacts?
- What are subcultures?
- What is the globalization of culture?

Types of Societies and Social Construction - Chapter 4

- What different types of societies have existed
(What are: Preindustrial Societies, Industrial Societies, Postindustrial Societies)
- What is Social Status?
(What are: status set, ascribed status, achieved status?)
- What is a Social Role?
(What are: role set, role conflict, role strain, role exit?)

- What does the "Social Construction of Reality" mean? Give 3 examples.
- What is ethnomethodology?

Socialization - Chapter 5

- What is the definition of socialization?
- What is the definition of personality?
- What is the nature vs. nurture debate?
- What effect does social isolation have on people? Give an example.
- Who/What are our agents of socialization?

Social Groups and Conformity -
Chapter 6

- What is a Social Group (vs. category or crowd)?
- What are Primary vs. Secondary Groups?
- What does the phrase "six degrees of separation" mean?
- What is the Asch line experiment and what are the two types of conformity he discovered?
- What is the Milgram shock experiment and what does it show?

Deviance - Chapter 7

- How is deviance defined (violation of norms - expected behavior; neither good nor bad; demand sanctions)
- What are the social functions of deviance according to Durkheim?
- What does it mean to say that deviance is defined by power (Marx; rule-makers vs. rule-breakers)?
What is 'Labeling Theory'? (primary vs. secondary deviance; stigma)
- What are the four parts of the criminal justice system?
What different types of sanctions exist in the criminal justice system?
- Why is the U.S. the nation with the highest incarceration rate in the world?

Social Stratification: Class in American Society - Chapter 9

- Define stratification.
- How are social stratification categories socially constructed?
- What are the measures of stratification? (the 3 P's)

- What is the difference between Caste, Estate, and Class stratification?
- What are the relative class rankings in the U.S. (lower, middle, upper, etc.)?
- What is the functionalist perspective on inequality?
- What is the conflict theory perspective on inequality?

Race and Ethnicity in American Society - Chapter 11

- What is the definition of race (what are the primary & secondary sex traits)?
- What is the definition of ethnicity (what are its material & non-material traits)?
- What is the distribution of race in the United States?
- What defines a sociological minority?
- What consequences does minority status have on groups and individuals?
- What is the cycle of discrimination and how does it work?
- What two social interventions are necessary to break the cycle of

Political Sociology - Chapter 17

- What are the relationships between politics and authority?
- What different types of political rule exist?
- What is the difference betwen pluralism and a power elite?
- What evidence exists to suggest that pluralist, democratic politics no longer describes American government?
- How does political change happen?

Human Population and Urbanization - Chapter 20

- What is the world population today and how has it changed over time?
- What is the J-curve?
- What are Fertility and Mortality?
- What is the population growth formula?
- What is the Demographic Transition? What do the stages on the graph represent?
- What is cultural lag?
- What are the effects of high fertility and decreasing mortality in developing countries?

- What is a megacity?
- What is the history of megacity growth, and where are they growing?
- What are the urban social issues arising from population growth?

Environmental Sociology - Chapter 20

- What are the logic and limits of growth?
- What are the chief toxic wastes entering our environment from industrial/agricultural uses?

- What are the causes and consequences of climate change?
- What other environmental problems exist due to human industrialization and urbanization?
- How can these environmental problems be addressed so they have a limited effect on future generations?