Review Notes Sociology 101 SUNY Morrisville Exam 2

Major Ideas and Concepts to Review for Exam 2:

Chapter 4 - Social Construction

- How is food production related to social development?
What types of food production have developed?
What types of societies have developed in relation to food production?
How have the three different classical sociologists explain different types of societies?
... Durkheim: Structural-Functionalism ideas and concepts
Marx: Social Conflict ideas and concepts
Weber: Symbolic Interaction ideas and concepts
What is Social Status? (what are: status set, ascribed status, achieved status?)
What is a Social Role? (what are: role set, role conflict, role strain, role exit, role synchonicity?)
What does the Social Construction of Reality mean?
What is the Thomas Theorem?
What is Ethnomethodology?
Online Media: Social Interaction and Performance - What is the main idea of Goffman's "presentation of self" perspective on social construction?

Chapter 5 - Socialization

- What is the definition of socialization?
- What is the definition of personality?
- What is the definition of identity?
- What is the nature vs. nurture debate?
- Who is Phineas Gage and what does his case demonstrate?
- What are "mirror neurons"?
- What effect does social isolation have on people and some animals? Give an example.
- Who and what are our agents of socialization?
- What are the contributions of Sigmund Freud to understanding personality?
- What are the contributions of George Mead to understanding personality?
- Online Media: Ego as a Social Construction - What is the differnece between personal identity and social role?

Chapter 6 - Social Groups and Conformity

- What does the phrase "six degrees of separation" mean?
- What are in-groups, out-groups and reference groups?
- What is the Asch Conformity Experiment about?
- How likely is it that people will conform in small groups?
- What two types of conformity characterize the reasons why we go along with the group?
- What is the Milgram Obedience Experiment about?
- What factor does authority play in creating group conformity?
- Online Media: Six Degrees of Separation - In what way is modern society like a complex network? How tightly woven is the social web?

Chapter 7 - Deviance

- How is deviance defined?
- What is "positive deviance"?
- What types of social sanctions exist in reaction to deviance?
- What are the social functions of deviance according to Durkheim?
- What are the categories of deviance according to Merton's strain theory?
- What does it mean to say that deviance is defined by power (Marx; rule-makers vs. rule-breakers)?
- What is 'Labeling Theory'? (Lemert; primary vs. secondary deviance; stigma)
- What four parts make up the structure of the U.S. criminal justice system?
What different reasons for criminal sanctions can be given?
- Why is the U.S. the nation with the highest incarceration rate in the world?
- Online Media: Deviance and Social Control - What are the major theories of social deviance held by sociologists?